Activity ID



September 20, 2021

Format Type

Journal-based CME

CME Credit



CME Provider

JAMA Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery


Evidence has emerged on the efficacy of tranexamic acid to control blood loss and postoperative complications after rhinoplasty.

To investigate the results of tranexamic acid use to reduce intraoperative bleeding, postoperative eyelid edema, and periorbital ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.

Data Sources and Study Selection:
For this systematic review of randomized clinical trials, searches were performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Google Scholar, OpenThesis, and from inception to December 23, 2017. Key words included tranexamic acid, rhinoplasty, and nasal surgical procedures. The following elements were used to define eligibility criteria: (1) population: patients undergoing rhinoplasty surgery; (2) intervention and controls: tranexamic acid vs placebo solution or no-treatment control group; (3) outcomes: intraoperative bleeding, postoperative eyelid edema and periorbital ecchymosis, and thromboembolic events; and (4) study type: randomized clinical trials.

Data Extraction and Synthesis:
Two reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality according to the Cochrane guidelines for randomized clinical trials. Treatment effects were defined as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CIs. The strength of evidence was analyzed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation rating system.

Main Outcomes and Measures:
Intraoperative bleeding, postoperative eyelid edema and periorbital ecchymosis. To calculate the effect sizes, means and SDs were obtained for each study group and outcome of interest.

Five studies comprising 276 patients were included in the systematic review: 177 patients (64.1%) were women, and mean age was 26.8 (range, 16-42) years. Four studies comprising 246 patients estimated the amount in intraoperative bleeding as a primary outcome and were included in the meta-analysis. Eyelid edema and ecchymosis were evaluated as outcomes in 2 studies. Tranexamic acid was associated with reduced bleeding during rhinoplasty was found (WMD, -42.28 mL; 95% CI, -70.36 to -14.21 mL), with differences (P?=?.01) between oral (WMD, -61.70 mL; 95%?CI, -83.02 to -40.39 mL; I2?=?0%) and intravenous (WMD, -23.88 mL; 95% CI, -45.19 to -2.58 mL; I2?=?56%) administration. Eyelid edema and ecchymosis scores in patients receiving tranexamic acid were significantly lower compared with the control group within the first postoperative week: lower eyelid edema, WMD, -0.76; 95% CI, -1.04 to -0.49 and lower eyelid ecchymosis, WMD, -0.94; 95% CI, -1.80 to -0.08. No cases of thromboembolic events were reported.

Conclusions and Relevance:
Current available evidence suggests that preoperative administration of tranexamic acid is safe and may reduce intraoperative bleeding as well as postoperative eyelid edema and ecchymosis in patients undergoing rhinoplasty.

1. This activity is accredited by the American Medical Association.
2. This activity is free to AMA members.

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Educational Objectives

To investigate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid on intraoperative bleeding, postoperative eyelid edema, and periorbital ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.


Facial Plastic Surgery, Nasal Surgery, Otolaryngology, Septoplasty and Rhinoplasty


Medical Knowledge

CME Credit Type

AMA PRA Category 1 Credit

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